Population density in major urban zones is often growing at rates that demand water supplies which natural recharge cannot fulfil. In other parts of the world, unprecedented flooding and erratic weather patterns have caused dramatic changes from historical water qualities. In addition, population growth leads to increased agricultural demands and more difficult waste streams which also challenges conventional water systems. Water resource qualities can be highly variable and will become more connected to influence from waste streams. In water deficit situations, increased water supply resources can be achieved through three primary means; water importation, desalination, and/or water reuse. Historically, water importation was the dominant means for augmenting dwindling freshwater supplies. However, water transmission across vast distances and elevations is often exceedingly energy and infrastructure intensive. Moreover, political and environmental concerns are often limiting factors in water importation projects. While ocean desalination also is energy intensive, it can provide a reliable source of water that is drought resistant and produces water of generally high purity. For both coastal and inland communities, reuse of municipal wastewater is a viable option for extending potable water supplies. This presentation will share the various paradigms being developed, or employed, to ensure public safety and acceptance.