The National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) has been hailed as a breakthrough in the moves towards an Australia which is more inclusive of people with a range of physical, neurological and psychological disabilities. The NDIS is an insurance-based scheme that creates personal budgets with designated categories in which expenditure is allowed based on an individual’s needs and a government service pricing guide. This is underpinned by the values of ‘choice and control’ whereby individuals are encouraged to manage their own budgets. This seminar will focus on key implementation challenges which the scheme has faced as it is rolled out to over 460,000 Australians. These challenges include the coordination and support of people with extremely complex needs or situations, difficulties resulting from the transition to a market-based model of service provision, limits on inclusion of some (e.g. people with mental illness) due to the implementation of the definition of ‘disability’ used by the scheme, cost blow-outs where demand has been higher than expected for particular need categories, and engagement of consumers, family members and carers in the design and implementation of the scheme.